At Wheeler Field in particular the destruction was fearful. Of the planes on the ground, 42 were totally destroyed, 41 were damaged, and only 43 were left fit for service. In total, more than aircraft were destroyed. The ships anchored in the harbour made perfect targets for the Japanese bombers, and, because it was Sunday morning a time chosen by the Japanese for maximum surprise , they were not fully manned. Most of the damage to the battleships was inflicted in the first 30 minutes of the assault. The battleship USS Arizona blew up with a tremendous explosion. Riddled with bombs and torpedoes , the USS West Virginia settled on an even keel on the bottom of the harbour.
The USS Oklahoma , hit by four torpedoes within five minutes, rolled completely over, with its bottom and propeller rising above the waters of the harbour. The target ship USS Utah also was sunk. Hardly a vessel escaped damage. The antiaircraft crews on the various vessels were fairly prompt in getting into action, and army personnel fired with what they had, but the force of the attack was in no serious way blunted.
Less successful than the first, it nonetheless inflicted heavy damage.
The battleship USS Nevada had sustained a torpedo hit during the first wave, but its position at the end of Battleship Row allowed it greater freedom of action than the other moored capital ships. It was attempting to get underway when the second wave hit.
It was struck by seven or eight bombs and was grounded at the head of the channel. The battleship USS Pennsylvania was set ablaze by bombs, and the two destroyers moored near it were reduced to wrecks. The destroyer USS Shaw was split in two by a great explosion. No one could doubt that the Japanese had gained a great success.
The Arizona and the Oklahoma were destroyed with great loss of life, and six other battleships suffered varying degrees of damage. Three cruisers , three destroyers, and other vessels were also damaged. Heavy damage was inflicted on both army and navy aircraft on the ground. The Japanese lost from 29 to 60 planes, five midget submarines, perhaps one or two fleet submarines, and fewer than men. The Japanese task force retired from the theatre of battle without being attacked. There was, however, one consoling feature to the tragedy. As a result of the dispositions made by Kimmel, two U.
Halsey , was on a mission to reinforce the Wake Island garrison with marine planes and aviators. These operations also meant that seven heavy cruisers and a division of destroyers were at sea.
The Enterprise was scheduled to return to Pearl Harbor on December 6 but was delayed by weather. A third carrier, the USS Saratoga , was embarking a fresh complement of aircraft in San Diego on the morning of the attack. The Pearl Harbor attack severely crippled U. However, of the eight battleships, all but the Arizona and Oklahoma were eventually repaired and returned to service, and the Japanese failed to destroy the important oil storage facilities on the island.
Roosevelt termed it, unified the U. On December 8 Congress declared war on Japan with only one dissenting vote Rep. Jeannette Rankin of Montana , who had also voted against U. The extent of the disaster and the unpreparedness of the U. Both Kimmel and Short were relieved of duty, and, almost immediately after the assault, the president appointed a commission headed by U.
Supreme Court Justice Owen J. Roberts to examine the facts and to fix responsibility. At a later date both army and navy boards reviewed the problem. In a full-scale congressional investigation took place. Prior to the September 11, , attacks , probably no episode in U. Among the earliest and most prominent exponents of this theory was Rear Adm. Theobald, a Pacific task force commander whose career was sidelined after he clashed with superiors and failed to challenge the Japanese attacks on Attu and Kiska in the Aleutians. Roosevelt did indeed pursue a policy of support for Nationalist China which acted as a substantial irritant to the Tokyo government and did much to provoke it to action.
At the same time, there is substantial evidence that he sought to postpone a clash, rather than to incite one, and even in the closing days of the negotiations he made an appeal to Japanese Emperor Hirohito , which, if listened to, might have had that effect.
This Day in History – December 7, 1941
The authorities in Washington knew that the Japanese forces were moving southward into the Gulf of Thailand. They did not believe that coincident with this move the Japanese could or would mount an attack on the Hawaiian base. It seemed logical, too, that the Japanese would avoid such action because it would inevitably bring the United States into the war; operations in the Pacific directed against the British and the Dutch might not have had this effect.
The possibility of an air attack on Pearl Harbor had been frequently discussed among U. It is a difficult matter and one on which divergent opinions will long be held to apportion responsibility between Washington and the commanders on the spot. In a report presented only a few weeks after it had been appointed by Roosevelt on December 17, , the Roberts Commission placed the principal blame for the disaster upon Kimmel and Short.
The army and navy commissions which later examined the problem took a contrary view, throwing the blame on the War and Navy departments. The majority report of a congressional committee, rendered in , while not avoiding criticism of the chief of naval operations and the U.
Army chief of staff, stressed the lack of preparation in Hawaii. Two members of this committee strongly dissented, severely blaming the authorities in Washington, and a third took a kind of middle ground. Those who defend the position of the Hawaiian commanders make the following points. At no time in the next 10 days was this neglect repaired. More than aircraft were destroyed and more than others damaged. A hurried dispatch from the ranking United States naval officer in Pearl Harbor, Admiral Husband Edward Kimmel, Commander in Chief of the United States Pacific Fleet, to all major navy commands and fleet units provided the first official word of the attack at the ill-prepared Pearl Harbor base.
Baseball History: December 7, 1941 A Date Which Will Live In Infamy!
They interviewed salesmen, electricians, janitors, oilmen, cabdrivers, housewives, students, soldiers, physicians, and others regarding the events of December 7. Among the interviewees was a California woman then visiting her family in Dallas, Texas. I find myself at the age of eighty, an old woman, hanging on to the tail of the world, trying to keep up. But the eternal verities—there are certain things that I wish to express: After the Day of Infamy: The Office of War Information OWI capitalized on the fear and outrage associated with the bombings to encourage support of war mobilization.
The man who aspired to be the greatest hitter in baseball history served four years and was discharged on January 28, DiMaggio played in and did not join the Army until February 17, He was stationed in Santa Ana, California and did not fight overseas. Towards the end of his military term DiMaggio suffered from stomach ulcers which limited his active duty. He was released from service on September 14, More than major league players swapped flannels for khakis during World War II.
The minor leagues, formerly a veritable oasis of baseball talent, were seriously affected by the manpower shortage with 4, players seeing military service. On a daily basis, talent was drained from the game as promising young athletes who had spent summers developing their athletic skills were plucked from baseball diamonds all across the country and taught to fly planes, shoot weapons and maneuver tanks.
This Day in History – December 7,
No more than 12 minor leagues survived during the war years compared to 44 circuits that operated in These are only a few stories told here, many, many more are out there so please remember today and thank a veteran if you have a chance! Bleacher Report 2 years Jeff Francoeur to Braves: Latest Contract Details, Comments and Reaction.
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